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Tetrapod World: early evolution and diversification

Discovering how tetrapods splashed out!

Foreshore at Burnmouth

© Rob Clack

The TW:eed Project is a scientific research project studying fossils and environments from the Early Carboniferous Tournaisian Stage, roughly 350 million years ago. Teams of experts from the Universities of Cambridge, Leicester and Southampton, the British Geological Survey and National Museums of Scotland are collaborating to study some spectacular newly-discovered fossils which will fill in a significant gap (Romer's Gap) in our understanding of how tetrapods moved from water onto land, the other animals and plants that existed at that time, and the environment in which these changes took place.

The project consists of teams working on the palaeontology, sedimentology, stratigraphy, palynology and performing stable isotope analysis, so that we can discover not only how tetrapods became terrestrial, but also what the environment, plants and other animals were like and how they changed in parallel with the tetrapods.

We are also working with experts in a number of other universities and institutions, both in the UK and abroad. Please see the Project Partners and Canadian Partners pages.

Our project blog is at and is maintained by Dr Carys Bennett at the University of Leicester.

Visit the Project Facebook page.

What's New?
  • Congratulations to Dr Sam Giles at the University of Oxford on being awarded one of this year's L'Oréal-Unesco Women in Science Fellowships! Fantastic news!
  • Team members from several institutes have just published a paper in the journal Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology about the terrestrial landscapes of south-east Scotland during the Tournaisian. You can read a summary here.
  • The latest newsletter has just been distributed. If you'd like to download your own copy, please go to the Downloads page here.
  • There is still time to visit the brilliant exhibition about our project at the National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh. It's free to visit and will stay open until 14th August. See a BBC report about it here.