Spanish flag icon

Tetrapod World: early evolution and diversification

Discovering how tetrapods splashed out!

Foreshore at Burnmouth

© Rob Clack

The TW:eed Project is a scientific research project studying fossils and environments from the Early Carboniferous Tournaisian Stage, roughly 350 million years ago. Teams of experts from the Universities of Cambridge, Leicester and Southampton, the British Geological Survey and National Museums of Scotland are collaborating to study some spectacular newly-discovered fossils which will fill in a significant gap (Romer's Gap) in our understanding of how tetrapods moved from water onto land, the other animals and plants that existed at that time, and the environment in which these changes took place.

The project consists of teams working on the palaeontology, sedimentology, stratigraphy, palynology and performing stable isotope analysis, so that we can discover not only how tetrapods became terrestrial, but also what the environment, plants and other animals were like and how they changed in parallel with the tetrapods.

We are also working with experts in a number of other universities and institutions, both in the UK and abroad. Please see the Project Partners and Canadian Partners pages.

Our project blog is at and is maintained by Dr Carys Bennett at the University of Leicester.

Visit the Project Facebook page.

What's New?
  • Our latest paper, describing five new Tournaisian tetrapods and the environment in which they lived is published in Nature Ecology and Evolution today online, and will be in the January print edition.
  • Our exhibition at the NMS has closed, but will now travel for three months at a time to Biggar, Montrose and Stornaway. We have also applied to exhibit at the Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition next July.